Thursday, July 2, 2020

University Phoenix Material Multicultural Matrix Analysis Worksheet - 825 Words

University Phoenix Material: Multicultural Matrix Analysis Worksheet (Coursework Sample) Content: University of Phoenix Material Multicultural Matrix and Analysis Worksheet Instructions: Part I: Select and identify six groups in the left-hand column. Complete the matrix. Part II: Write a summary. Part III: Format references consistent with appropriate course-level APA guidelines. Part I What is the groups history in the United States? What is the groups population in the United States? What are some attitudes and customs people of this group may practice? What is something you admire about this groups people, lifestyle, or society? 1. Native American Originated from Asia early 1000 BC Population wiped by diseases brought by Europeans during the invasion of Americas in 1492 Resisted the European invasion but eventually they were overpowered and made to work on colonial farms Others spread out to what is called today southern Canada, USA and southern South America The population of this group is on the rise again today Native Americans make up to 6.6 million people in the united states population grid of 2013. Their main custom was the trade they carried for supplies and food. They celebrated the Green Corn festival as the main ceremony The dressing code of this group has been admired throughout the world. Most people from eastern Europe have adopted this dress code too. 2. Asians Americans Comprised of the Chinese, Filipinos and Japanese as the major ethnic groups in this group Koreans, Vietnamese, South Asian Americans and Hmong later joined the group. Chinese arrived first in large numbers in the USA in 1850s. they came as workers in the railroads and goldmines Violent and resistance they encountered made them to not work on the goldmines. Arrival of the Japanese was between 1890-1907. Most of the Japanese population settled in Hawaii. Which was still an independent country up to the year 1898 They became the largest population in a multicultural Hawaii and in 1910, they took control of the political class of the state. Account for 16,235,300 0f the total population. They lay their values in the development of strong family and group values. They are of high context communicators. They believe in passing communication that will keep the group ties rather than the normal truth. The great emphasis on family values employed by this group of American is admirable. 3. African Americas Origin traced to African. They were mostly brought to America through slave trade as early as in 1550s. Most of the time they have been considered as Black Americans. They have been referred to in many ways; negroes, colored though these names are unacceptable in the modern society Their history is observed in February, a month commonly referred to as Black History Month. In early 1700, the number of black slaves in North America had reached 25,000 people translating to 10% of the total population. In the 1750s, the number of slaves born in America with African decent outnumbered those that came in as slaves. They started resisting slavery as the more notable rebellion was Stono Uprising that was organized in 1739. Most of them died in this rebellion after killing 20 whites Account for 39,906,100 of the total population They believe that family is the bedrock of culture hence have close ties and attend family get together annually to let the bonding of members of the family. In most family reunions, there is a culture of roasting a pig. One admirable element of African Americans is the freedom with which they lead their lives. Though they emphasis on family as a core element of the community, individual freedom is also granted. 4. Latino Americans Consist mostly of Mexicans, Cubans and those with Puerto Rico descents. The first Latino to land to Americas was Juan Ponce de Leon, in 1513. Thirty years after him, the Latinos became the first Europeans to discover Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. 1540, Hermando de Soto carried a vast exploration of the United States. He covered states like Georgia, Oklahoma, Tennessee, The Carolina They created their first settlement in 1565. To date, they are among the major groups in the United States. The population of this group in the united is 56,600,000 of the total population Regard the family as the cornerstone of the community. The continuity of Spanish language to the young is also highly ensured. Latin Americans are admirable for their emphasis to ensure that each member of the society learns and is able to communicate in Spanish. 5. Mexican Americans In 1813, a Mexican ethnic group called Tejanos established a government in Texas after colonizing it. This was a channel the used to gain independence from the rule of the Spanish. After a war with Americans which they lost in 1848, they entered into a treaty with the Americans commonly referred to as Treaty of Guadalupe Hidaligo. The result of the defeat meant Americans will enjoy unchallenged invasion of Texas. The modern day Americas population is made up of 11.2% of people with Mexican decent. Made up of 36300000 people Muh of the values of this group revolve around the teachings of religion and the church They also practice lay pottery as a form of art In the contemporary world, religion has grown to be an important element of the society. This group of Americans put more and more emphasis on the importance of observing church teachings and lay their foundation on the rules of the church. 6. Multiracial Americans The interracial marriages between different groups date to early 17th century The children of this decent were given the social class that the mother belongs to. The principle that was employed is that of partus sequitur ventrem which is opposing the principle of English common law. They command a population of 8.5 million people in the United States. They do not have definite cultural and attitude values of their own. Most of them take the values, attitude and culture of one of the parents. The way in which different members of a particular ethnic group embrace other groups is admirable. For example, in a family of a Latin and African American, one of the members will have to embrace the culture and values of each others group. Part II Summ...

Monday, May 25, 2020

P G Market Analysis - 1027 Words

Andrea Carter Product Market Analysis for Proctor Gamble July 7, 2012 Product Market Analysis Proctor and Gamble is serving customers in over 180 countries with their massive market capitalization. They have a purpose to live up to for their consumers in all of those 180 countries. They provide services and branded products that are of superior quality and great value which will improve the consumers’ lives in the world now and forever. As stated on their website, â€Å"Our purpose works to unify us in a common cause and growth strategy. It is powerful because it promotes a simple idea to improve the lives of the world’s consumers every day. P$G grows by touching and improving more consumers’ lives in more parts of the world†¦more†¦show more content†¦With PG being present in 180 countries there seems to be no real barrier to entry that can’t be overcome. They have some competition from other companies that offer dishwashing detergents which can be seen as a threat of substitute products. There is definitely a presence of rivalry fro m other competitors including the store name brand detergents that are shelved next to PG’s product. Industry Cost Structure The cost structure is different in each market and country. It is based off of the economy in a certain market so that it’s affordable and economical to the consumers there. Cost structure must be carefully studied so that the product doesn’t fail and remain on the shelf while others priced more reasonably sell. Distribution Channels PG has several distribution channels that help them to get their product out to the consumers. There are stores like Wal-Mart, Target, Dollar General, and a number of grocery stores that sell the products. You can even purchase the product online from a number of retailers. Market Trends PG must keep up with any changes that occur in their target market. This can pose either threats or opportunities depending on the change that occurs. They need to be cautious of price sensitivity and whether there is a new demand for variety. Also there can be changes that are regional that they need to keep an eye out for. Key Success FactorsShow MoreRelatedPG Market Analysis596 Words   |  3 PagesPROCTOR AND GAMBLE COMPANY DECISION SHEET The LDL market segmentation for Procter amp; Gamble is based on three main product attributes. Performance describes the product’s primary cleaning benefit, mildness describes the gentleness on hands, and price provides the benefit of low cost. Pamp;G positioned its three LDL brands very differently. Ivory is positioned to appeal to females, primarily middle-class mothers, who enjoy the benefit of younger looking hands. Advertisements depict a mother/daughterRead MoreSkii Case Analysis1041 Words   |  5 PagesPractical Work # 1 Pamp;G and SK-II Paolo de Cesare heads to Japan to make a decision on one of Pamp;G’s most successful and fast growing products – SK-II. SK-II was a high end product that had developed a strong following among Japanese women, who were increasingly conscious about skin care and willing to spend a significant amount of their income. Cesare must decide among three options: continue to focus on the Japanese market, introduce the product in china, or introduce it in Europe. Read MoreSwot Analysis : Procter Gamble Essay1001 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Procter Gamble (PG), a leader in the personal products industry relies on branding, product innovation, and delivering value and quality products to consumers worldwide. However, PG has seen stagnant growth in profits. PG is a position to reevaluate and restructure its strategy by identifying external threats and weakness which is a key step to solidifying a corporate strategy for long-term growth. This is an PEST and Five Forces external analysis of PG’s threats and weaknesses,Read MorePG vs Unilever Executive Summary1442 Words   |  6 PagesUnilever and Pamp;G – Comparative Analysis Executive Summary The Consumer Products Industry is the biggest industry in the world at the moment, with total revenues amounting to about 50% of all goods sold. It is comparable to the GDP of the 4th biggest economy in the world, and entails most of the products we use in our every day lives. There are 3 key factors that drive the industry today: developing markets, the emerging middle-class of developing countries and the millions of baby boomers inRead MoreThe Light Duty Liquid Detergents (Ldl) Market1428 Words   |  6 PagesI. Executive Summary Chris Wright, associate advertising manager of Packaged Soaps and Detergents (PSD) division at Procter and Gamble (PG) needs to evaluate how to increase the volume of its light duty liquid (LDLs). 3 alternatives for volume growth are considered for analysis based on the market segment (price/ performance/ mildness): (1) introduction of a new brand, (2) product improvement of an existing brand and/or (3) increased marketing expenditures on existing brands. Ultimately he mustRead MoreA Market Analysis Focused On Procter Gamble1520 Words   |  7 PagesA Market Analysis Focusing on Procter Gamble Dorothy Dilger Herzing University November 23, 2014 A SWOT analysis is an effective tool for acquiring insight toward a company’s internal strengths and weakness, and external opportunities and threats. PG’s greatest strengths are their aggressiveness toward understanding consumer needs, strong research and development, and a diversification strategy. The company’s weaknesses are substantial competition in the consumer goods industry, andRead MoreIndividual Case Analysis Colgate vs. PG796 Words   |  4 PagesIndividual Case Analysis [pic] Brighter Smiles for the Masses----Colgate vs. PG [pic] [pic] BY: ZHUANG Lingzhi ( Erin ) 52373176 Individual Case Analysis The Procter Gamble Company (PG) was the first one to launch the over-the-counter tooth-whitening product, Crest Whitestrips, which is able to be used at home to the market. After two years, Colgate followed to launch the rival product, Simply White, and snatched big part of the market share fromRead MoreNon Financial Performance : Human Talent1561 Words   |  7 Pagesmaximum support for attainment of desired outcomes. In addition, PG involves proper leadership development and offering its experienced employee with an opportunity of succession planning that in return leads to high employee preservation at the enterprise11. Apart from these, varied pension plans; post-employment benefits and additional benefits such as health care are offered to the workforce. However, the overall employee in PG has reduced from 118,000 to 105,000 (2014-2016) which indicates company’sRead MoreBusiness Analysis of Procter and Gamble. Essay925 Words   |  4 Pages17 July 2010 Presentation by Michael Rajendra Sai Tunde Yinka Saturday, 17 July 2010 Aim      of      Presenta.on †¢ To   cri.cally   analyse   PG   from   the   strategic   management    perspec,ve   using   various   models   . Saturday, 17 July 2010 Purpose   of   PG †¢ To   provide   large   variety   of   consumer   products   at   an   aï ¬â‚¬ordable    price   without   compromising   quality. †¢To    Read MoreSwot Analysis Of Procter Gamble856 Words   |  4 PagesCase Study Analysis Procter Gamble (P G) Proctor and Gamble is an American corporation dealing in consumer products. The company markets its range of goods to different global regions having expanded to new markets over time. Among the consumer products offered by Procter and Gamble include cleaning products, pharmaceuticals, and personal care supplies among other products (Proctor Gamble Company Case Study Analysis, 2016). The corporation prides itself on innovations and collaborations as

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Rhetorical Analysis of Colin Fletchers The Man Who Walked...

The story, The Man Who Walked through Time, by Colin Fletcher, is depicting a situation where he takes over the role of a non-existent Indian. Fletcher is trying to experience things the same way the Indian man used to. Fletcher lets the audience see this by using rhetorical devices such as word choice, tone, and descriptive examples. In Fletcher s style of writing he sometimes makes the reader think that he is actually experiences some of the same things that the Indian experienced. Fletcher, at first makes the reader believe that he actually lives in the dwelling. Choosing such sentences as, I climbed back to my pink apartment house, unpacked, and settled in, (Fletcher 81, 2000), this helps the reader to understand that this is no†¦show more content†¦The cubical showed every sign of having been built for a man just about my size, (p 81). Again Fletcher is assuming that the cubical was built for a man of his size. I dwelt in my cliff dwelling for twenty-four hours. And, hour by hour-conscious of my vast ignorance, yet curiously confident-I began to focus on my cave dweller more sharply, (p 82). In this sentence Fletcher reassures the reader that the man knows he s not really experiencing anything with the Indian. We know this because he tells the audience that he is aware of his own ignorance. By choosing those words, Fletcher lets the reader know that the man is imagining being with the Indian. Fletcher has an expository tone. Throughout the essay Fletcher tries to explain to the audience what it must have been like to live like an Indian. There are very few factual statements in this writing. Fletcher makes many assumptions and gives his opinion to try to explain to the reader what it must have been like to live in a cliff dwelling. By only assuming he does a pretty good job of making the reader believe. The descriptive examples that Fletcher uses really let s the audience picture it. Throughout the writing when the man speaks of events, he explains in great detail. first I pictured him building his home. I saw him chipping patiently away at the roof of the cave, so that there would be headroom when he sat up in his cubical, (Fletcher 82).

Friday, May 15, 2020

Learn the Spanish Abbreviations You Should Know

Spanish has dozens of abbreviations, and theyre common in both formal and informal writing. Differences Between Abbreviations in English and Spanish Unlike in English, where most abbreviations are capitalized, many Spanish abbreviations are not. Generally, abbreviations that are capitalized are personal titles (such as Sr. and Dr., even though the words themselves are not capitalized when spelled out) and those derived from proper nouns. But there are exceptions. Note also that, as in English, some abbreviations are used with or without periods varying with the style of writer or publication. The points of the compass usually arent abbreviated in running text. List of Spanish Abbreviations Here are the most common Spanish abbreviations. This list is far from complete, as Spanish has hundreds of abbreviations. Among those not listed here are those that are common in only one country, including acronyms for government agencies such as JUJEM for Junta de Jefes del Estado Mayor, the Spanish Joint Chiefs of Staff. This list shows the Spanish abbreviation in boldface, the Spanish meaning and the corresponding English abbreviation or translation. A/A — a la atencià ³n — to the attentiona.C., a. de C., a.J.C., a. de J.C. — antes de Cristo, antes de Jesucristo — B.C. (before Christ), BCE (before Common Era)a. m. — antes del mediodà ­a — a.m. (before noon)apdo. — apartado postal — P.O. Boxaprox. — aproximadamente — approximatelyAv., Avda. — avenida — Ave. (avenue, in addresses)Bs. As. — Buenos Aires — Buenos Airescap.o — capà ­tulo — chapterc.c. — centà ­metros cà ºbicos — c.c. (cubic centimeters)Cà ­a — compaà ±Ãƒ ­a — Co. (company)cm — centà ­metros — cm. (centimeters)c/u — cada uno — apieceD. — don — SirDa. — doà ±a — Madamd.C., d. de C., d.J.C., d. de J.C. — despuà ©s de Cristo, despuà ©s de Jesucristo — A.D. (anno domini), CE (Common Era)dna. — docena — dozenDr., Dra. — doctor, doctora — Dr.E — este (punto cardinal) — E (east)EE. UU. — Estados Unidos — U.S.esq. — esquina — street corneretc. — etcà ©tera — etc.f.c., F.C. — ferrocarril — R.R. (railroad)FF. AA. — fuerzas armadas — armed forcesGob. — gobierno — Gov.Gral. — general — Gen. (military title)h. — hora — hourIng. — ingeniero — engineerkg — kilogramos — kg (kilograms)km/h — kilà ³metros por hora — kilometers per hourl — litros — litersLic. — licenciado — attorneym — metros — metersmm — milà ­metros — millimetersm.n. — moneda nacional — sometimes used to distinguish the national currency from others, especially in areas used by foreign touristsms. — manuscrito — manuscriptN — norte — N (north)no., nà ºm. — nà ºmero — No. ( number)O — oeste — W (west)OEA — Organizacià ³n de Estados Americanos — OAS (Organization of American States)ONU — Organizacià ³n de Naciones Unidas — UN (United Nations)OTAN — La Organizacià ³n del Tratado Atlà ¡ntico Norte — NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)pà ¡g. — pà ¡gina — pageP.D. — postdata — P.S.Pdte., Pdta. — presidente (masculine), presidenta (feminine) — presidentp.ej. — por ejemplo — e.g. (for example)p. m. — post meridien — p.m. (after noon)Prof, Profa. — profesor, profesora — Professorq.e.p.d. — que en paz descanse — R.I.P. (rest in peace)S — sur — S (south)S.A. — Sociedad Anà ³nima — Inc.S.L. — Sociedad Limitada — Ltd.Sr. — seà ±or — Mr.Sra. — seà ±ora — Mrs., Ms.Srta. — seà ±orita — Miss, Ms.s.s.s. — su segu ro servidor — your faithful servant (used as a closing in correspondence)tel. — telà ©fono — telephoneUd., Vd., Uds., Vds. — usted, ustedes — youv. — và ©ase — go seevol. — volumen — vol. (volume)W.C. — water closet — bathroom, toilet Abbreviations for Ordinal Numbers Just as in English we might use a spelling such as 5th for fifth, Spanish speakers often abbreviate ordinal  numbers using the numerals themselves. A big difference in Spanish is that the abbreviations vary with gender. For example, octavo (eighth) is written as 8o if its masculine and 8a if its feminine. Such forms arent common for numbers above 10. Note that in masculine forms a superscripted zero is used rather than a degree symbol.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

My Leadership Skills At An Early Age - 2824 Words

Introduction Leadership has always come quite naturally to me. My leadership skills stood out at an early age as evidenced by: (a) early childhood relationships whereby I would always organize the activities; (b) a quick promotion after two months to a leadership role in my first after school job; (c) securing funding to open my own business in my early twenties; and (d) obtaining senior level leadership roles in every organization I have worked for. I had assumed that this innate ability this would continue when I became a parent; that I would quite naturally have the knowledge and skills to effectively raise my child just as I have successfully motivated work teams towards success. I was shocked however, when I found this was not†¦show more content†¦The reality that I was not a natural born mother and also that I didn’t particularly enjoy every moment of it was not only a surprise, but was deeply disturbing to me. Societal pressures around the meaning of motherh ood that came from my parents, my spouse, the media, and of course other mothers in my peer group contributed to feelings of shame and confusion. As conveyed by Ireland (1993) there is an assumption that when a woman has a child, being a Mother is who she is and this it is a fundamental part of her identity. The problem was I didn’t feel like a â€Å"Mother†, being a mother was something I did, not something I was, which was contrary to the beliefs I had been raised with and those of most the society in which we live. This dichotomy led me to realize that there were aspects to my personality that I was previously unaware of, forced me to revisit assumptions and redefine my perception, values and perceptions of myself and of motherhood. Gaining Inner Awareness In Chapter four Daft (2013) outlines the importance of self-awareness and of spending time to reflect upon and recognize previously unacknowledged personal characteristics that could negatively affect leadership abilities. In those wee hours while the rest of the world slept I was able to do some very

Broken Spears Essay - 1473 Words

The Broken Spears â€Å"The Broken Spears† is a collection of many accounts of the destruction of Mexico by Cortes and the conquistadors in their invasion. The motive behind this conquest was Cortes’ desire to bring a fortune of gold, spices, and land that can be claimed, back to Spain. Although these desires were admirable, they were sought after at the expense of the Aztecs and consequently changed an entire civilization, due to an initial drive for power, control, land, and money. Cortez along with the Spaniards ultimately destroys the Aztecs in their quest for fortune and fame. The accounts are based on the Aztec’s perception of the invasion and include the revolt of the Aztec people that lead to the terror and the†¦show more content†¦Montezuma’s attempts to keep the Spaniard away from the Tenochtitlan included everything from sending out magicians and warlocks hoping that they could harm the Spaniards with their magic, to sending out captive s to be sacrificed in their presence. With each failed attempt to prevent the Spaniards from entering Tenochtitlan, came the rising fears of the â€Å"inevitable†. As the Spaniard began to inquire about Montezuma, he contemplated fleeing and escaping the â€Å"gods†. Due to Montezuma’s failed attempts, Cortez and the Spaniards decided to begin marching In-land, in their arrival to Tlaxcala and Cholula. One could argue that the invasion of these cities was due to the defiance and the fact that they would not surrender to Cortez’s control. During the march Cortez gained a larger army and allies. Once Cortez and the Spaniards reached the entrance of Tenochtitlan their march was complete. Montezuma then prepared to greet Cortez. According to the text, â€Å"He presented many gifts to the Captain and his commanders, those who had come to make war. He showered gifts upon them and hung flowers around their necks; he gave them necklaces of flowers and bands of f lowers to adorn their breasts; he set garlands of flowers upon their heads. Then he hung the gold necklacesShow MoreRelatedBroken Spears854 Words   |  4 PagesThe author argues that the Spanish were completely at fault for the total destruction of the Aztec Empire. In Broken spears, the author explains how many factors other than Spanish power contributed to the downfall of the Aztecs. Not only did the Spanish have many advantages over the Aztecs, but also they also exploited them and took advantage of the cultural difference. The main key aspects to the Spanish victory, is that the Spanish were viewed as gods at first because of their appearance, theRead Morebroken spears focus paper802 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿The Broken Spears Focus paper In The broken spears, author Miguel Leon-Portilla gives accounts from the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1519. These accounts include several texts written by surviving indigenous people of the Aztec civilization; these perspectives truly shows the emotion, fear, and uncertainty the Aztec’s felt in depth during this time. With the accounts in our textbook and the broken spears, we are able to draw conclusions viewing both facts and experiences through thisRead MoreBroken Spears Bernal Diaz1295 Words   |  6 PagesTwo Accounts: Broken Spears and Bernal Diaz In every historical event there tends to be conflicting sides, each member has their own point of view based on a plethora of statistics. These statistics include but are not limited to, socio-economic classes, race, geographical boundaries, gender, etc. When two cultures interact for the first time there is bound to be some discrepancies over what truly occurred. These discrepancies are portrayed quite well through Bernal Diaz’s The Conquest of New SpainRead MoreThe Broken Spears: the Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico1413 Words   |  6 Pageshistorians tremendously. The Broken Spears is a historical outlook on the Spanish Conquest of the Americas that includes several different texts written by many different indigenous people. Numerous texts are written in such a way that show the fear that the people experienced while having their towns overtaken, while other texts simply explain what was happening at the time. In Traditions and Encounters, a more factual approach is taken, conveying only facts. The Broken Spears includes facts, yet alsoRead MoreBroken Spears the Spanish Defeat of the Aztec Empire1433 Words   |  6 PagesThe Broken Spears is a book written by Miguel Leon-Portilla that gives accounts of the fall of the Aztec Empire to the Spanish in the early 16th century. The book is much different from others written about the defeat of the empire because it was written from the vantage point of the Aztecs rather then the Spanish. Portilla describes in-depth many different reasons why the Spanish were successful in the defeat of such a strong Empire. Portilla starts out by giving a thorough background of theRead MoreThe Broken Spears by Miguel Leon-Portilla Essay727 Words   |  3 Pagesstraight a path, unlike their bows and began to hit the ground or move sideways at the sound of a cannon. This in modern day seems very minimal, but to the Aztecs it was a great step because their weapons were no match for artillery and cannons. Broken spears lie in the roads; We have torn our hair in our grief. The houses are roofless now, and their walls are red in blood (137). The Aztecs fought a long eighty day war against the Spaniards, who to the Aztecs seemed to be supernaturalRead More The Broken Spears by Miguel Leon-Portilla Essay871 Words   |  4 PagesThe Broken Spears by Miguel Leon-Portilla The author argues that the Spanish were completely at fault for the total destruction of the Aztec Empire. In Broken spears, the author explains how many factors other than Spanish power contributed to the downfall of the Aztecs. Not only did the Spanish have many advantages over the Aztecs, but also they also exploited them and took advantage of the cultural difference. The main key aspects to the Spanish victory, is that the Spanish were viewed asRead MoreEssay about Broken Spears by Miguel Leon-Portilla1505 Words   |  7 PagesThe Broken Spears is a book written by Miguel Leon-Portilla that gives accounts of the fall of the Aztec Empire to the Spanish in the early 16th century. The book is much different from others written about the defeat of the empire because it was written from the vantage point of the Aztecs rather then the Spanish. Portilla describes in-depth many different reasons why the Spanish were successful in the defeat of such a strong Empire. Portilla starts out by giving a thorough background of theRead MoreMy Childhood Memories Of The Big Girl881 Words   |  4 Pagesthe coolest thing ever. Amanda and I may have been nearly eleven years apart, but she would always include me in the â€Å"big girl† fun. For example, many of my childhood memories involve her allowing me to watch PG-13 movies and MTV, starting Britney Spears or Spice Girls dance parties in the living room, and taking me out for ice cream after school whenever it was her turn to pick me up. I also remember becoming a third wheel on some of Amanda’s dates when my mother needed her to babysit at the lastRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1513 Words   |  7 PagesHe has grown and overcome new obstacles, such as the hunt he just barely escaped, and has now learned from them, and will return home with this knowledge. After all that had happened, the war, Piggy’s death, and the massive fire, the boys are left broken and helpless, reduced to nothing but tears and regret. This reflects their society, how it is in pieces and is full of evil, ever since they began to separate into savages and logic the society started deteriorating. Therefor, unity and humanity is

Capital Budgeting Internal Rate of Return †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Capital Budgeting Internal Rate of Return. Answer: Introduction For a business to undertake a new project, it is important to analyse the risks and returns associated with that investment project. Capital budgeting is a tool that provides for such analysis and helps in ascertaining the economic and financial profitability of any such investments. There are a number of techniques which might be used in the capital budgeting process to provide an analysis of the projects profitability. Some of these techniques include Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index, Payback Period (Fabozzi Drake 2008). However, the most effective of the above is NPV as it gives absolute measure of the profits from the investment. In the current scenario, Riverlea Limited, a public listed company is in the process of negotiation with Wowcoles, a supermarket chain to supply confectionary in a private label for Wowcoles. The project is for a period of 10 years and in order to undertake the project, the company will have to undertake a long term investment of purchasing a new machinery to increase its production levels. An analysis of the project was performed taking into account all the incremental revenues and costs with the help of capital budgeting techniques. Also a sensitivity analysis was conducted to see the effect of lower revenues on the NPV. The findings have been discussed below. The NPV of the project was derived taking into account the incremental revenues, variables costs, the decrease in current revenues, decrease in current operating costs, depreciation on the new machinery, the initial investment required and the terminal value of cash flows. Also the payback period, IRR and Profitability index were calculated to confirm the results. The various assumptions taken for the analysis are: The decrease in current revenues is considered as an opportunity cost and is considered a cash outflow The decrease in current variable costs is considered as a cash inflow The new machinery has been depreciated on a diminishing value method. The value of machinery to be depreciated is the cost of machine plus its installation and shipping charges. Tax rate has been assumed to be 30% There is an increase of working capital and subsequent increase in working capital from 1 to 9 years. All the working capital is assumed to be recovered at the end of the project i.e. the 10th year of the project. For discount rate, the cost of equity has been considered. Cost of equity has been calculated using the CAPM approach, where the risk free rate is the average return on the 10 year Australian Government Bond, market return is the average return of ASX200 from 1997 to 2016. Beta has been calculated using the variance and covariance approach. Now, conducting a sensitivity analysis to compensate for the uncertainty of the expected cash flows, the results are as flows: Techniques Base case Allow for a 40% probability that incremental revenues associated with the supply will be 40% lower than expected starting from year six. Allow for a 10% probability that incremental revenues associated with the supply will be 20% higher than expected starting from year six. NPV $14,74,896 $11,85,514 $15,11,068 Payback period 4.6 4.6 4.6 IRR 21% 19% 21% PI 1.8 1.7 1.9 The acceptance rule for NPV is that accept the project if the NPV is positive or else reject the project. This is because NPV is the difference of the total present value of cash inflows and the cash outflows. Here the NPV of the investment by Riverlea Limited is positive, hence according to the NPV rule, the project should be accepted. This means the cash inflows discounted at the companys cost of equity is more than the cash outflows and hence the investment in the new machinery to supply confectionary to Wowcoles proves beneficial for the company as the cash inflows in the form of revenues is more than the cash outflows in the form of initial investment and other operating costs. Also the payback period is within the investment period, the IRR is more than the cost of capital and the PI is more than 1. All the capital budgeting techniques give a positive result for the project. Since the company is relying on a future outcome, hence the forecasted cash flows cannot be assumed to be totally accurate, so to have an idea as to how the companys cash flows will look like under different scenarios, a sensitivity analysis was conducted taking into consideration two scenarios of higher and lower expected revenues. Scenario 1 where there is a 40% probability that the incremental revenues will be lower by 40% from year six onwards, the NPV has fallen by almost 20%. And for scenario 2 where there is a 10% probability that the incremental revenues will be higher by 20% from year six onwards, the NPV has increased by almost 2.5%. Under both conditions, we have taken a pessimistic approach in a way that the incremental revenues are falling by a higher percentage and the probability of the fall is also much higher than the probability of an increase in the revenue. Still, we see that the NPV is positive for scenario 1 and 2 both. We can also conclude that NPV is sensitive to the revenues and with an increase in revenues by 20%, the NPV increases by 2.5% showing a lower change in NPV as compared to a change in revenues. Even in the two scenarios, the payback period, IRR and PI is favourable. Since the NPV of the project is positive and the other capital budgeting techniques are favourable under all the scenarios, it is recommended that Riverlea Limited should go ahead with supplying confectionary to Wowcoles under a private label and to purchase new machinery required to fulfil the increased production levels. Efficient market hypothesis (EMH) states that a stock is always correctly priced in the sense that all publicly available information about the stock is factored into the price of the stock and hence no investor can have abnormal gains from any analysis like fundamental or technical analysis (Clarke, Jandik Mandelkar n.d.)There are three forms of market hypothesis that are said to exist like Strong form EMH, semi strong form and weak form EMH. According to weak form EMH, the prices of stock have all past information incorporated into it. Semi weak form suggests that all new information is immediately incorporated into the stock price and under strong form, both public and private information is incorporated into the stock prices and no investor can gain advantage (Sandhar, Nathani Holani 2009) From the above we see that the stock price is in the range of $1.2 till four days prior to the announcement, it has increased by 80% one day prior to the announcement and on the day of the announcement the stock price has increased by about 100%. Thereafter the price has fallen by 1.8% the next day of the announcement and has increased by 1.7% on the second day of the announcement. In general, for the next five days, the stock price has fallen by approx. 1.5% but has remained in the range of $4.2 to $4.3. A similar pattern was being followed prior to the announcement. Conclusion As a result of the new project, the increase in per share price should be $6.86 (NPV value / number of shares) and therefore the increase in stock price on the day of the announcement should be by $6.86 according to the semi strong form EMH as the hypothesis assumes that all publicly available information is incorporated into the share price. However, here this is not the case as the share price has increased by 80% one day prior to the announcement which shows some insider information caused the prices to increase and on the day to the announcement the prices further increased by 100% or by $2.19. The total increase in share price due to announcement is $3.15 and the increase has happened in two days time. The increase in share price less than expected by $3.71. This means the share price of Riverlea Limited does not reflect its intrinsic value and hence we can say the shares are undervalued. Moreover, the share prices have fallen by 1.8% on next day of announcement and have increas ed by 1.2% on the second day, this shows adjustment of the price as investors buy and sell the shares. As we see that the share prices do not reflect the actual intrinsic value, we can expect the share prices to rise in the future, hence it is recommended to buy the shares of Riverlea as the prices are expected to rise. Moreover, since semi strong form EMH is said to exist, we will see that when more and more investors will buy the shares of the company, the price of the stock will increase till the level it truly reflects its intrinsic value. Thereafter, the EMH will exist. Bibliography Clarke, J, Jandik, T Mandelkar, G, Efficient Market Hypothesis, viewed 5 October 2017, https://m.e-m-h.org/ClJM.pdf. Sandhar, S, Nathani, N Holani, U 2009, 'TESTING SEMI-STRONG FORM OF MARKET EFFICIENCY: A Study of NSE', Appejay Journal of Management and Technology , vol 4, no. 1.